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Terrafugia[2] (/ˌtɛrəˈfiə/) is a Chinese-owned corporation, based in Woburn, Massachusetts, United States that is developing a roadable aircraft called the Transition and a flying car called the TF-X. The Transition and TF-X are designed to be able to fold their wings, enabling the vehicles to also operate as street-legal road vehicles.

Terrafugia, Inc.
IndustryAircraft manufacturing
Founded2006; 16 years ago (2006)
FoundersCarl Dietrich
Anna Mracek Dietrich
Samuel Schweighart
Alex Min
Arun Prakash
Woburn, Massachusetts
United States
Key people
Chao Jing, CEO
Kevin Colburn, VP & General Manager
Josh Elvander, VP Engineering[1]
ParentZhejiang Geely Holding Group

In January 2021, Terrafugia announced that the Transition received a Special Light-Sport Aircraft (LSA) airworthiness certificate from the FAA for the Transition to be flown only, with road use approval to follow in 2022.[3]

In February 2021 the company had laid off the majority of its employees, planned to close its US operations and re-establish in China.[4]

Founding and financial history

Terrafugia was founded by graduates of the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and graduates of the MIT Sloan School of Management. Their team and business plan was the runner-up for the 2006 MIT $100K Entrepreneurship Competition. Terrafugia was then incorporated May 1, 2006, with much of the initial funding coming from CEO and founder Carl Dietrich's US$30,000 Lemelson-MIT Student Prize. The first round of convertible note financing began at EAA AirVenture Oshkosh 2006 and closed December 21, 2006, raising US$258,215.[5][6] Five additional rounds of convertible note financing followed. The first round of equity financing closed in 2008 and raised US$1,531,323.[7] Another round of equity financing was initially planned for 2009; the second and third rounds of equity financing raised US$2,037,680 in May, 2010 and US$960,418 in Dec, 2010.[8][9] Another equity offering of US$3.5 million was reported in May, 2012 of which $1,020,369 had been sold.[10][11] In October 2008, Terrafugia reported seeking reservations for airframe number 57 representing an order book of more than US$8 million.[12][13] In March 2009, the company had received fewer than 35 aircraft reservations, but by September 2009, they had doubled that to 70;[14] as of December 2011, 100 reservations were on deposit representing potential revenues above US$25 million.[15]

Production prototype Transition
Production prototype Transition

In July 2017 the company was purchased by the Zhejiang Geely Holding Group, a Chinese corporate conglomerate that also owns the Volvo and Lotus Cars automobile companies, with the purchase finalized in November 2017.[16][17]

The company started 2017 with 20 employees and hired 75 more people during the year. It planned to hire an additional 50 people by December 2018. During that period the company increased the staffing levels at its Woburn, Massachusetts, headquarters, expanding the work force in engineering, accounting, human resources, marketing and also operations. A new research and development division was also established in Petaluma, California, intended to undertake all future engineering tasks.[18]

In September, 2018, Terrafugia replaced Carl Dietrich as CEO with Chris Jaran.[19][20] Dietrich remained in the CTO position. In April 2019, the company replaced CEO Chris Jaran with Chao Jing. Huaibing Wang became CFO.[21] Dietrich announced his departure from Terrafugia at the same time.[22]

In February 2021 the company had reportedly laid off 80-100 of its employees, a majority of the people who worked there. The company planned shutdown its US operations and re-establish in China.[4]

Transition roadable aircraft

Terrafugia originally expected initial deliveries of the Transition light sport aircraft in 2015 or 2016.[23][24] The estimated purchase price was originally announced as US$194,000[25] and was increased to US$279,000 as of December 2011.[26] As a light sport aircraft, the pilot will be required to hold a Sport Pilot or higher certificate, which requires a minimum of 20 hours of dual instruction to obtain, as well as passing an FAA oral and practical examination. Owners will be able to drive amidst normal street traffic from their garage to an airport where the wings can be deployed for take-off and flight within a range of 460 miles (740 km; 400 nmi). It will carry two people plus luggage and will operate on a single tank of premium unleaded gas.[27] The design of the production version was made public at AirVenture Oshkosh on 26 July 2010 and no longer included a front canard.[28]

The Transition Proof-of-Concept's maiden flight on 5 March 2009 lasted 37 seconds and covered 3,000 feet (910 m) of the runway at the Plattsburgh International Airport.[29] The test pilot then conducted 6 additional takeoffs and landings.[25]

In June 2010, the FAA granted Terrafugia an exemption for the Transition's extra takeoff weight.[30] The added weight accommodates the Transition's road safety features, which is needed to comply with Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards.[30] On June 29, 2011, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration also granted exemptions allowing the Transition to use a polycarbonate windshield, to use tires suited for highway and aircraft use but not typically certified for multi-purpose vehicle use, to not include an electronic stability control system that could inadvertently cut engine power during flight, and finally, to use regular instead of advanced airbag deployment.[31]

After undergoing drive tests and high-speed taxi tests, the production prototype completed its first flight on March 23, 2012 at Plattsburgh, New York.[32][33][34] The production prototype then made its auto show debut at the 2012 New York International Auto Show in April, 2012.[35] In June, 2012, Terrafugia announced that the Transition had completed the first of six phases of flight testing.[36][37] By July, the second phase of testing was underway, expanding the performance envelope in the sky and continuing drive testing on the ground.[38]

The company's next-generation concept, the TF-2, is an aircraft that will carry both cargo and passenger loads.[39]

DARPA Transformer (TX) Project

Transformer (TX) is a DARPA US$65m, five year, three phase program[40] intended to develop a 'flying Humvee'. A Phase 1 proposal from AAI Corporation was awarded a US$3m contract in September, 2010[41] and incorporates deployable surfaces technology from subcontractor Terrafugia.[42][43]

Terrafugia TF-X

On May 7, 2013, Terrafugia announced the successor of Transition, called the TF-X. TF-X is a plug-in hybrid tilt-rotor vehicle and would be the first fully autonomous flying car. It has a range of 500 miles (800 km; 430 nmi) per flight and batteries are rechargeable by the engine. It is expected to hit the market at least six years after Transition (2023).


  1. Terrafugia (2021). "Terrafugia's Leadership Team". terrafugia.com. Retrieved January 26, 2021.
  2. "TERRAFUGIA, INC. Summary Screen". The Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Secretary of the Commonwealth, Corporations Division. Archived from the original on December 24, 2012. Retrieved April 6, 2009.
  3. Terrafugia, Inc. "Terrafugia Announces FAA Special Light-Sport Airworthiness Certificate". www.prnewswire.com. Retrieved January 27, 2021.
  4. O'Connor, Kate (February 17, 2021). "Layoffs Reported At Terrafugia". AVweb. Archived from the original on February 18, 2021. Retrieved February 15, 2021.
  5. Terrafugia (February 14, 2007). "Upcoming 2007 Events". Terrafugia Newsletter (4). Archived from the original on March 25, 2009. Retrieved March 23, 2009.
  6. "Terrafugia SEC Form D 2007-01-04". Archived from the original on April 8, 2016.
  7. "Terrafugia SEC Form D 2008-11-11". Archived from the original on April 7, 2016.
  8. "Terrafugia SEC Form D 2010-05-18".
  9. "Terrafugia SEC Form D 2010-12-23".
  10. "Terrafugia SEC Form D 2012-05-24".
  11. Seiffert, Don (May 25, 2012). "Terrafugia gets $1M, tests flying car". Mass High Tech Business News. Archived from the original on May 31, 2012. Retrieved June 5, 2012.
  12. "AOPA Reporting Points, Flying car or pipe dream?, Carl Dietrich". Archived from the original on October 28, 2008.
  13. Foege, Alan (December 8, 2008). "The car of the future: It flies". CNN. Retrieved March 23, 2009.
  14. Carl Dietrich, Terrafugia CEO; Evelyn Rusli, Forbes (September 29, 2009). Inside Terrafugia's Flying Car (Podcast). Event occurs at 1m10s. Archived from the original (Adobe Flash) on September 23, 2009. Retrieved October 29, 2009. Since the Transition's first flight in March, the number of orders has more than doubled to 70.
  15. Hussey, Matt (December 31, 2011). "Wait no longer: the flying car is finally ready for takeoff". Wired.co.uk. Retrieved April 4, 2012.
  16. Grady, Mary (July 5, 2017). "Report: Terrafugia Sold To Chinese Conglomerate". AVweb. Retrieved July 7, 2017.
  17. Krok, Andrew (November 13, 2017). "Volvo parent Geely acquires flying-car startup Terrafugia". cnet.com. Retrieved November 14, 2017.
  18. Grady, Mary (April 10, 2018). "Terrafugia Adds 125 Jobs". AVweb. Retrieved April 17, 2018.
  19. Polachi, Charley. "Terrafugia Names Chris Jaran as Chief Executive Officer". Retrieved September 30, 2018.
  20. Rocco, Matthew (September 27, 2018). "World's first flying car about to go on sale". Fox Business News.
  21. Cook, Marc (April 8, 2019). "Carl Dietrich Out, Chao Jing In As Terrafugia CEO". AVweb. Retrieved April 9, 2019.
  22. Baldwin, Alan (April 9, 2019). "Co-founder Carl Dietrich leaves Terrafugia". Helicopter Investor.
  23. Dietrich, Carl. "CEO, Terrafugia" (PDF). Terrafugia. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 16, 2011. Retrieved June 30, 2011.
  24. Welsh, Jonathan. "Flying Car Slowed by Roadblocks". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved June 27, 2013.
  25. Roush, Wade (March 18, 2009). "Terrafugia Achieves Maiden Flight". Xconomy. Retrieved March 18, 2009.
  26. Durbin, Dee-Ann (April 3, 2012). "Terrafugia flying cars cost $279,000 each, already have 100 pre-orders (+video)". The Christian Science Monitor. Associated Press. Retrieved April 4, 2012.
  27. Harris, Mark (January 11, 2009). "World's first flying car prepares for take-off". The Times. London. Retrieved March 19, 2009.
  28. ""Flying Car" Moves Closer to First Delivery". Terrafugia. July 26, 2010. Archived from the original on July 7, 2012. Retrieved July 27, 2010.
  29. Page, Lewis (March 18, 2009). "World's first proper flying car makes debut flight". The Register. Retrieved March 18, 2009.
  30. Grady, Mary (June 23, 2010). "FAA Grants Extra Weight To Terrafugia". AVweb. Retrieved August 3, 2010.
  31. Department of Transportation National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (June 29, 2011). "Terrafugia, Inc.; Grant of Application for Temporary Exemption From Certain Requirements of FMVSS No. 110, Tire Selection and Rims for Motor Vehicles, FMVSS No. 126, Electronic Stability Control Systems, FMVSS No. 205, Glazing Materials, and FMVSS No. 208, Occupant Crash Protection". Federal Register. 76 (125): 38270–38279. 76 FR 38270. Retrieved June 30, 2011. Docket No. NHTSA-2010-0154
  32. "First Flight for Terrafugia". Retrieved April 2, 2012.
  33. "Major Milestone takes "Flying Car" Closer to First Delivery" (PDF). terrafugia.com. April 2, 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 23, 2013. Retrieved April 2, 2012.
  34. Jim Patten (March 25, 2012). "Flying car road tested at Lawrence Municipal Airport". eagletribune.com. Retrieved March 25, 2012.
  35. Welsh, Jonathan (April 5, 2012). "Flying Car Maker Offers 'Show Special' Discount". Driver's Seat. Wall St. Journal. Retrieved July 30, 2012.
  36. "Phase 1 Flight Testing a Success for Transition Street-Legal Airplane". Terrafugia. Archived from the original on July 7, 2012. Retrieved June 28, 2012.
  37. Jonathan Welsh (June 28, 2012). "'Flying Car' Completes First Round of Flight Tests". wsj.com. Retrieved July 1, 2012.
  38. "Terrafugia's Transition street-legal airplane continues flight and drive testing" (PDF). Terrafugia. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 13, 2013. Retrieved July 30, 2012.
  39. "Terrafugia Adds 125 Jobs - AVweb flash Article". www.avweb.com. Retrieved April 11, 2018.
  40. Baratti, L. Flying car company tagged for Transformer tactical vehicle team Archived 2013-01-23 at archive.today Exec Digital, 18 December 2010. Accessed: 27 December 2010.
  41. "Award Notice". September 27, 2010. Contract Award Number: FA865010C7068 Contract Award Dollar Amount: 3049562 Contractor Awardee: AAI CORPORATION, 124 INDUSTRY LN, HUNT VALLEY MD 21030-3342
  42. Huang, Gregory T. Terrafugia, Aurora Flight Sciences, Metis Design take wing in $65M DARPA program to design Flying Humvee Xconomy, 2 December 2010. Accessed: 16 December 2010.
  43. McKeegan, Noel. Terrafugia to contribute DARPA flying car program GizMag, 30 November 2010. Accessed: 16 December 2010.

На других языках

- [en] Terrafugia

[fr] Terrafugia (entreprise)

Terrafugia est une startup américaine créée en 2006, rachetée en 2017 par le constructeur chinois Geely, qui conçoit et développe des voitures volantes dont la Transition (à ailes repliables), la Terrafugia TF-X (en) et le TF-2A[1] (à décollage vertical).

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